Numbering an estimated 600,000, Muslims now represent one of the fastest growing religious communities in New York City. Through decades of immigration and conversion, Muslim New Yorkers constitute a vibrant mosaic of ethnic, racial, sectarian and socioeconomic diversity. Like other minority groups, however, Muslims also face a host of social, economic, and political challenges. To date, very little research exists about this important population. To fill this need, Columbia University’s Middle East Institute, with generous support from the Ford Foundation, initiated the Muslims in New York City Project. Its goal is to explore in an interdisciplinary fashion questions of identity, social and cultural accommodation, economic participation and political engagement as they relate to Muslims’ individual and collective experiences in the complex realities of life in New York City.